If you stick to the old dogmas of the genetic code, logical thinking, that two different amino acids, encrypted in two identical (the third is not important) the nucleotides in the mRNA codons, equally likely will be included in the peptide chain, i.e.. by chance. And such paired ambiguities, even in the nemitohondrial′nom code, there are six, except for the two to stop kodonam (they are "nonsense" or pointless). So what, There is indulgence to permit "frequent and random substitutions of amino acids in protein synthesis? However,, known, that such random replacement in most cases have the most negative consequences for the organism (sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, etc.). There is an obvious contradiction: need accuracy (the unambiguity of) relationship of mark-a mark " (codon-amino acid), and invented people code it does not provide. Therefore, the existing and the common understanding of the key (the iconic) mechanisms of protein synthesis requires further analysis. Therefore, a closer look at the 60-ies of the principles of genetic coding. As listed and rated apparent oddities lead authors of theory and experimentation in this area — the cry, M. Nirenberg and their followers?
The primary controversy-mixed matching (codon-amino acid) are shown in table:
You Can See, that couples of different amino acids are encoded the same relevant dubletami kodonovyh nucleotides ("vobliruûŝie" little meaningful, on the shout! , and generally unreadable, by Lagerkvistu , nucleotides are shifted to the index). In terms of Linguistics, this phenomenon is called Homonymy, When the same words have different meanings (for example, Russian words "onion", "spit" or English "box", the "ring", etc.). On the other hand, redundant different codons, denoting the same amino acids, has long been considered as synonymous. On homonymy of the genetic code statements in the literature, we do not know. Thus, dubletno-tripletnye if you count the codons "words", the code itself is, among other things, two-dimensional, the omonimo-synonymous. For these measurements code splits, as will be seen from table, mainly, the pair family, redundant, but not clearly, Encrypt different amino acids. And in only two of the six cases homonymous sometimes Doublets are similar in structure and function of amino acids (aspartic-glutamic acid and asparagine-lysine). Therefore, When ambiguous (the erroneous) choosing a high probability of amino acids synthesis of abnormal proteins, If you follow the logic of the common code model. Most of these doubts and outline for the future in mild form has already been made of the summary article f. Crick and m. Nirenberga "genetic code".
To quote the authors quoted in view of the strategic importance of the principles of genetic coding: c. 133: "protein ... is a long sentence, encoded with the twenty letters ". Here is one of the first and fruitful comparisons of proteins, and then the DNA, natural language texts, comparisons, generally accepted at first only as a metaphor, and then developed and formalized as a quasi-voice actors [14,25,26,29]. In this analogy, the embryo of the future out of the flat and dead-end understanding genes, the forerunner concepts shape codes (Word as image), and this is in line with the ideas of Gurvich, Lûbiŝeva and Vladimir Beklemishev, which also saw potential in the chromosomes of the wave shape and even aesthetic structure as an organizing biome started.